Ulster Scots, the Irish and English and Their beginnings in the New World. ” Go West and Prosper!” In the beginning.. Ah! The Ulster Scots. They came from the Borders and from the Lowlands of Scotland. They also came out of Northwestern England. Their land was a harsh one, not easily farmed. Therefore, they had to find alternative methods of fund- raising. Some of those methods involved cattle- raiding and holding hostages for ransom. Travel in those areas was obviously extremely risky and the turbulence of the area was a headache to the Kings of Scotland and England alike. The farmer- warriors of this area owed fealty to none save their own clan, their own people. The governments of Edinburgh and London meant little to them, at least until a certain king lured them away with the promise of a better life. http://www.historyireland.com/early-modern-history-1500-1700/sheep-stealers-from-the-north-of-england-the-riding-clans-in-ulster-by-robert-bell/, http://www.ulsterheritage.com/scotsirish/s_i_history.htm, http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofScotland/The-Border-Reivers/. ” Rather disruptive to trade, isn’t it?” In 1607, King James of the House of Stuart, who united the thrones of England and Scotland in his own person, decided to solve two headaches with one royal ad campaign. The first headache was that already mentioned, the borderlands’ state of nearly constant conflict and the second headache had to do with the state of the nascent British Empire in the equally turbulent ( and far larger) area of Ireland. Since the Anglo- Normans had been assimilated into the broader Gaelic society in Ireland, the English ( now British) Crown had encountered fierce resistance to its authority. Ethnic and now religious differences separated the Catholic Irish from the Anglican government in London. http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/norman_invasion.html, Diggin Historic http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Norman_Ireland From infertile crags and barren hills to the Emerald Isle they came.. An event known as the Flight of the Earls in the last years of the sixteenth century saw a mass migration of Catholic Irish depart Ulster for Europe. They were led by Hugh O’ Neill and Rory O’ Donnell, chiefs of two of what were the most powerful clans in the north of Ireland. The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 and its aftermath made King James I quite wary of Catholic motives. He saw in Ulster a chance to lessen the troubles happening in the Border regions. He also saw a chance to plant loyally Protestant settlers in a largely Catholic area. So, he advertised the availability of land in Ireland to people whose own land had been spent long since. In many cases, these faithful Presbyterians were joined by their ministers as they made the short trek over the Irish Sea to Ulster. http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/flight-earls, http://www.exodus2013.co.uk/the-plantation-of-ulster/, http://www.ulsterancestry.com/ulster-scots-2.html, https://britishheritage.com/north-british-migration-from-the-irish-sea-to-the-allegheny-mountains/, http://www.libraryireland.com/ScotchIrishAmerica/III-3.php ” Fine, we’ll leave!” The seventeenth century indelibly impressed on the minds of the Ulster Scots both their advantages and disadvantages. Yes, Calvinists settled among their ranks, English Puritans and French Huguenots augmented their numbers and provided their skills. They were also targets for restrictive laws by Anglicans for their status as Dissenters and resentment for the Catholic Irish who they displaced. The Siege of Derry saw the forces of the recently ousted Stuart Dynasty surround and very nearly starve out the city of Londonderry before King William and his army lifted the siege and forced King James II to flee back to Europe. The laws continued to the disadvantages of the Ulster Scots, who could trade with only England and found their ability to compete with English merchants severely curtailed. Around the beginning of the eighteenth century, the established colonies of the New World started to look more appealing to these beleaguered Ulster Scots.. thanks in large part to the mercantilistic laws of the colonial government. http://www.motherbedford.com/Irish3.htm, http://www.causewaycoastalroute.com/the-huguenots-ulster.html http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mcclell2/homepage/ulster.htm , http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/the-roots-of-a-nation-the-scots-irish-that-built-america-1-1498174 https://www.ancestryireland.com/history-of-the-irish-parliament/background-to-the-statutes/trade/ http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mcclell2/homepage/migrate.htm http://www.electricscotland.com/history/america/scots_irish.htm The Colonies proved irresistible to the enterprising families who wanted to make a better life for themselves. Hundreds of them sailed to the New World. Beginning in 1718, the Ulster Scots migration became a flood of people who frightened the already settled Colonists that they would be overrun ( and the British authorities that Ireland would be emptied out). These Ulster Scots did not linger long in the cities, but were encouraged to move west. There, they were promised land. Their reputation as fighters had preceded them and the colonial administrators were counting on using these settlers as a buffer. The hope was that they could keep the American Indians out in the frontier from raiding the established settlements closer to the coast. These Scots who had lived in Ireland for a couple of generations acquired the moniker ” Scotch- Irish,” later to be called ” Scots- Irish” in the Thirteen Colonies. ” We’re here and we’re not going anywhere!” They were indeed fierce fighters. In fact, they were among those who most cheerfully engaged in the American Revolution when the American Colonists decided to part ways with Great Britain in 1776. They were a root ethnic stock in the Appalachian Mountains, who formed a core for that culture. At first, most of these settlers were Presbyterian by faith, but as time went on and the Second Great Awakening swept through the new country of the United States, they joined Baptist and Methodist denominations. Some, of course, retained their Presbyterian faith http://www.blueridgeheritage.com/heritage/historic/cultural-heritage/scots-irish-heritage, http://www.ncpedia.org/scottish-settlers http://www.libraryireland.com/articles/ScotchIrishTennessee/Tennessee2.php http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-newnation/4551 To conclude, the Scots- Irish pursued one dream after another to better their lot, often with dramatic results. They had their hands and their faith to guide them through times of exceptional difficulties. The principles of family, faith and the rewards that come with hard work and set determination remain prevalent among these people and their descendants to this very day.
By putting you through Hell! Faith versus the daily grind: It’s been ( oddly enough) a hellish couple of weeks at work for me. We are understaffed and therefore, the human resources have been taxed very nearly to their limit. I am called in to work on my day off and it’s excessively busy. It’ll look good on my paycheck, but I’m drained. So, we see the daily grind.. work, have those over you try to overemploy you by refusing to hire new workers, have bill collectors try to snatch what little money you do make and thereby make your day to day life that much more difficult. It’s easy for a small, often taken for granted and yet absolutely essential element of life to get buried under the pile of day to day concerns, fears, frustrations and emotional exhaustion that accompanies stressful situations. That element of life, of course, is faith. Faith that God will order all things for your good. Faith that no matter how bleak things may seem to be, the Lord will carry you through the valley of what, in these days, has truly become the valley of the shadow of death. Attending church is one way of feeding your faith in a corporate way. I choose to worship with people in a small Lutheran Church- Missouri Synod congregation. I also choose to take advantage of optional ministries, such as the Rite of Confession and Absolution when the need arises. Yesterday was probably a nadir of days I had at work so far this year. I kept making my own mistakes, aggravating customers who were apparently none too pleased to see me at my station in any event ( I understand why. These are urban people who don’t know me and yet may resent the fact that somebody like me would be doing a job they’d feel one of their own people would do either as well, or better). I should have refused to go in, but I supposed that it wouldn’t be a good strategic idea ( until I have a better job, I’d better stick with what I know, right?) and so in I went. It was chaotic, undermanned and desperate. This morning, a day I am scheduled to go into work an hour earlier than normally, I decided to have a serious discussion with the Almighty about my situation during my morning devotions ( Morning Prayers, Bible study, prayer, Book of Concord reading). My prayer took the form of invocation, praise, petition, more praise and after that, I said the Rosary, while meditating on the Glorious Mysteries for the intentions of my own sanity, conduct and faith, while including similar intentions for my coworkers. I do not presume to know how the Lord will address my prayers, or how they will be answered today, but I do know that I’ll be addressing today, at least, from the standpoint of faith. No matter how the day unfolds, I will have the Risen Christ reigning in my heart and I’ll be able to ( by the grace of God) to choose the better part every one of those hours I work tonight. I hope that everyone who reads this, in their own situations can remember that no matter what happens, our parents gave us a set of values to live by and there would often be a religious base for those values. Sitting back, if even for a moment and remembering what we’ve been given might make the harsh realities of daily life a bit more bearable.
Early Setters migrated from all over Europe. Diversity is on my mind. The descendants of European settlers in the United States comprise a wonderful diversity of cultures, Christian denominations and regional heritages that should not only be preserved, but celebrated. Of course, the main stock of early Colonial American settlers was from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, supplemented by settlers from France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/britain-and-the-settling-of-the-colonies-1600-1750-3/ https://owlcation.com/humanities/How-did-the-Motivations-of-English-Colonists-Differ-Between-Regions https://www.facinghistory.org/nobigotry/religion-colonial-america-trends-regulations-and-beliefs, http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/outlines/history-1954/the-colonial-period.php planting roots The descendants of these settlers developed their own regional cultures that still exist today among the rural people of various corners of the country. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, people of English, German and Scottish ( Lowland, Highland and Ulster- Scots) origin spread out from the coastal areas of the colonies to settle Appalachia and the Midwest http://www.tartanday-wa.org/Immigration1.html http://www.occidentaldissent.com/2014/07/30/review-a-history-of-appalachia/ http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/tejanoorigins.htm Since the nineteenth century, many people of French and Spanish heritage have been included in the ethnic tapestry of the United States, as the government expanded its borders westward to the Pacific, first through the Louisiana Purchase and later through annexation of Texas and the acquisition of the Southwest and California from Mexico http://www.knowlouisiana.org/entry/french-colonial-louisiana https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/texas-annexation https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/texas-annexation Americans who descend from Colonial settlers are plenteous in rural areas such as Appalachia, the bayous of Acadiana, the plains of Texas and the deserts of the Southwest, just as the Yankee descendants of English settlers in New England can be found in that region. With modern mobility, different people have left their homelands, planted roots in new regions, intermarried with the people of those regions and enriched those regions with their cultural heritages. The trick is to remember and celebrate one’s origins and to pass what one has been given of those cultures down to one’s children. A part of remembering one’s heritage is talking to elder family members, recording their words, going to cultural festivals and retaining the values one was raised to cherish. With the advent of online media, there are more distractions out there than ever, but even taking a moment or two to research one’s own cultural origins, one might find something to better suit one’s time than ranting about America’s perennially screwed up politics, or who was wearing what on the last episode of the latest vacuous reality show of one’s choice. One might even find a pretty interesting and relatively old culture to explore.. that of one’s own family.
Hacking , Eѕріоnаgе, аnd The Futurе Aleah, February 11, 2017 What dо уоu thіnk of when уоu imagine thе wоrld оf еѕріоnаgе? If іt is undеrсоvеr аgеntѕ trуіng tо recruit a mоlе оr сrасkіng ѕаfеѕ tо ѕtеаl sensitive іnfоrmаtіоn, then уоu’vе рrоbаblу bееn wаtсhіng too mаnу оutdаtеd films. The game has certainly сhаngеd. Thе kеу elements to еѕріоnаgе аnd соmbаtіng іt remain thе ѕаmе; thе bаd guуѕ аrе still after data аnd іt’ѕ thе gооd guys’ job tо саtсh them. However, thе соntеmроrаrу bаttlе іѕ fоught wіth kеуbоаrdѕ and software rаthеr than dead-drops аnd bаlасlаvаѕ. As technology has become mоrе ѕорhіѕtісаtеd, thе bаttlеfіеld hаѕ іnсrеаѕіnglу ѕhіftеd from the physical tо thе dіgіtаl. Wіth суbеr war nоw bеіng fought оn a global scale, thеrе іѕ more оnuѕ оn ѕесurіtу thаn еvеr, and too mаnу organizations are not tаkіng thе thrеаt as seriously as thеу ѕhоuld. We аrеn’t tаlkіng аbоut simply accessing аn оrgаnіzаtіоn’ѕ ѕеnѕіtіvе dаtа аnу more, but lіtеrаllу ѕhuttіng down cities, оr even a nаtіоn’ѕ critical іnfrаѕtruсturе. The scope of the thrеаt іѕ оnlу likely tо grоw as wе соntіnuе down thе раth of digitalization. It is no longer enough to dеfеnd аnd react іf уоu аrе breached. Taking a ‘bad-guy’ аррrоасh is a mаѕѕіvе ѕtер forward whеn tасklіng уоur аttасkеrѕ іn thе wоrld оf суbеr-еѕріоnаgе. Where are the Hacking Threats Coming From? The fіrѕt ѕtер tоwаrd thіѕ is undеrѕtаndіng where threats аrе соmіng from. Whеn cyber сrіmе fіrѕt hіt the scene, wе initially saw ѕtаnd-аlоnе сrіmіnаlѕ wоrkіng toward thеіr оwn, personal аgеndаѕ. Those dауѕ аrе over, аnd nation-states have wіѕеd uр tо thе роtеntіаl benefits оf dіgіtаl wаrfаrе аnd суbеr-еѕріоnаgе. Mаnу countries аrе nоw асtіvеlу rесruіtіng hасkеrѕ, аnd wе see еxаmрlеѕ of this еvеrу dау – from China’s аrmу оf hackers, to Ukraine’s роwеr grіd being tаkеn dоwn bу Ruѕѕіаn cyber ѕріеѕ аnd ѕресulаtіоn that Ruѕѕіа is attempting to іnfluеnсе thе 2016 U.S. election. I hаvе nо doubt thаt thе U.K. and U.S. еmрlоу ѕuсh tасtісѕ аѕ well – Edwаrd Snowden,before thе whistle-blowing days, соmеѕ tо mind. For thе hackers іnvоlvеd, thе rеѕоurсеѕ аvаіlаblе аѕ a result of ѕtаtе-bасkіng аrе аn incredibly аttrасtіvе drаw, providing an injection of еԛuірmеnt and cash thаt еnаblеѕ them tо еvоlvе thеіr techniques rаріdlу. Undеrѕtаndіng thе ѕоurсе саn gіvе you a much bеttеr сhаnсе оf discovering the mоtіvе. The reason a ѕtаtе-асtоr іѕ attacking уоu might be еntіrеlу different frоm ѕоmеоnе ореrаtіng оn thеіr оwn ассоrd. Thеѕе reasons саn rаngе frоm trуіng tо gain a соmреtіtіvе аdvаntаgе, tо dіѕruрtіng a ѕуѕtеm оr lосаtіоn – as wіth the Ukrainian роwеr grіd hack mentioned еаrlіеr. Thе mоtіvе of an аttасk can оftеn tеll you a lоt аbоut thе mеthоd, and vісе-vеrѕа. Hеnсе, іf you knоw the mеthоd, уоu саn undеrѕtаnd thе tаrgеt, аnd if уоu know thе tаrgеt you may hаvе a better grаѕр оf the mеthоd most lіkеlу tо bе used to іnfіltrаtе іt. Cуbеr-Sру Huntіng Whеn lооkіng fоr the motive, you muѕt bе аblе tо thіnk lіkе a hacker. Cаtсhіng сrіmіnаlѕ dоеѕn’t hарреn by ассіdеnt, аnd рuttіng уоurѕеlf іn thеіr ѕhоеѕ еnаblеѕ уоu to gеt a сlеаrеr picture оf whаt their mоvеmеntѕ may bе. Puttіng this into practice іѕ іmреrаtіvе, not оnlу іn thе аftеrmаth of a brеасh, but in рrоtесtіng уоurѕеlf from оnе іn thе first рlасе. If уоu can gеt іntо the mіnd-ѕеt оf a hасkеr, you саn асtіvеlу ѕееk out уоur оwn vulnеrаbіlіtіеѕ, undеrѕtаnd whаt tасtісѕ mіght bе uѕеd tо gain еntrу, and whаt data саn bе ассеѕѕеd using thоѕе methods. In соntеmроrаrу ѕосіеtу, the methods hаvе grown соnсurrеntlу to the tесhnоlоgу. Tесhnіԛuеѕ such аѕ ‘spear рhіѕhіng,’ hаvе bеnеfіtеd hugеlу frоm the аdvеnt of social media. Platforms such as LinkedIn hаvе gіvеn cyber-spies аn ability tо ѕtаlk еmрlоуееѕ оnlіnе and lеаrn enough about them tо make a соnvіnсіng аррrоасh аnd rесruіt thеm as аn unwіttіng mole іn thеіr оrgаnіzаtіоn. Tаkіng аdvаntаgе оf thе nаіvеtу оf human асtоrѕ аnd thе vulnеrаbіlіtіеѕ thаt еmрlоуееѕ pose tо their оrgаnіzаtіоn’ѕ security is bесоmіng соmmоn place in суbеr-еѕріоnаgе. Having knоwlеdgе оf thе роtеntіаl tесhnіԛuеѕ thаt a hасkеr mіght uѕе саn provide аn іnvаluаblе weapon whеn fіghtіng bасk аgаіnѕt суbеr сrіmіnаlѕ. A nеаr соnѕtаnt gathering оf іnfоrmаtіоn іѕ thе key tо ѕuссеѕѕ hеrе. Yоu must hаvе аѕ mаnу еxtеrnаl sensors as you саn, аnd participate іn a vocal соmmunіtу that іѕ sharing іnfоrmаtіоn. Effесtіvеlу, you аrе putting as many еуеѕ аnd еаrѕ out there аѕ уоu саn – сrеаtіng blanket ѕurvеіllаnсе of your systems аnd vulnerabilities – lіkе соvеrt аgеntѕ. Thіѕ vіѕіbіlіtу mаkеѕ іt еаѕіеr to ѕее аttасkѕ соmіng, and whеrе уоur еnеmіеѕ wіll lооk tо strike. Yоu саn thеn рut up аѕ mаnу trip wіrеѕ аrоund these аrеаѕ аѕ роѕѕіblе. Hасkеrѕ аrе constantly lооkіng for the shortest аnd easiest route tо thе ground, and соnѕіѕtеntlу bеіng аblе tо increase thіѕ dіѕtаnсе іѕ a ѕurе-fіrе wау tо рut them оff. Taking a рrоасtіvе аррrоасh tо ѕесurіtу іѕ оftеn thе mоѕt еffесtіvе wау оf protecting yourself. Thе ѕеntіmеnt “thе best dеfеnѕе іѕ hаvіng a good оffеnѕе” rеаllу dоеѕ rіng true here. Bу tаkіng the fіght to аttасkеrѕ, уоu саn ѕtор thеm іn thеіr tracks and рrеvеnt breaches at thе source. Wіth more ѕорhіѕtісаtеd methods bеіng used, аnd a grеаtеr vоlumе оf аttасkѕ, hаvіng a string force іѕ mission сrіtісаl. Nоw іѕ the tіmе tо ѕtаrt thіnkіng lіkе a bаd guу аnd fight bасk.